The Arab invasion of Sindh is one of the epoch-making events which left a permanent impression on the people of Sindh. It may be regarded as the most important events which changed the entire aspect of Indian history after the Aryan invasions. In The history of Sindh there are a lot of books has written but chach-nama is one of the resource. This is a Persian translation of Arabic history. In relation to this there are various other modern works on the early history of Islam, but they hardly contain new knowledge of conquest of Sindh.
Causes if invasion
It has been stated that Arab had an eye on the rich land of sub-continent long before the propagation of Islam. But in the beginning of 8th century Indian compelled them to invade. There were a lot of other reasons to invade behind it. There are the following factors which are responsible to for the conquest of Sindh.
Plunder of Muslim ships by the pirates of Sindh
The trade relation between Arabs and Sindh date back to the antiquity. The Arabs had settlement at the coast of Sindh which provided the link between Arabs and sindhis thorough trade activities. There were strong bonding between Arabs and sindhis because there settlements provided a lot of opportunities to the host residents. These relations were intensified when some of the people converted to Islam. When some of the Arabs residents died in Ceylon and the king of Ceylon sent their children and families back. The orphans of the Arabs carried valuable gifts and some goodwill letters for the caliph and the viceroy, which plundered by the pirates of Sindh. These pirates were constantly disturbing the trade activities and flow of commerce between Sindh and Arabs. Hajjaj the viceroy of eastern provinces demanded the release of orphans and adequate compensations, but Dahir the ruler of Sindh replied that he had in control over pirates. On this Hajjaj decided to invade Sindh.
Shelter to Arab Rebels (Ilafis Tribes)
During the governorship of Hijjaj, some rebels of Arabs crossed the border into Sindh and were given shelter by Dahir, the ruler of Sindh. When Hajjaj demanded the rebels Dahir refused to return the refugees. The governor of the eastern province was an ambitious man, he wanted the expansion of his rule and this gave him an opportunity to punish Dahir and conquer Sindh.
Moreover some of the historian says the tribesmen were the spies to Hajjaj and worked to update their secrets and identify the weaknesses of Sindh ruler.
Help to Persian against the Muslims
The Muslim conquest of Persia including the provinces of Kirman and Makran brought the Arabs face to face with the ruler of Sindh, the trade of the Arabs were jeopardized that serious attempt were made to subjugate the Sindh.
Political and Religious Prejudice of Dahir
Majority of the population of Sindh were Buddhist and had grievances against the rular, thus invited the foreigner to interfere and invade. One of the main cause of the arabs attack and successes were the infidelity of the sindhis themselves on political and religious prejudice. The population of the Sindh were Buddhist and the ruler professed Hinduism of extreme Bharamanical proclivities. It was the age of spreading Hinduism in sub-continent which had gained enormous strength. Due to the religious antagonism Buddhist tribes of Sindh were kept in abject submission and treated as slaves and for this these tribes welcomed foreigners to invade and help them in this prejudice.
Preaching of Islam
The real causes of invading in Sindh was to spreading Islam and made a strong ties between the Arabs and sindhis, so that their trade and ties can never be abolished.
It must be noted here that the solidarity of the kingdom was destroyed in Sindh because the ruler made the survival of Buddhist is impossible, every nobles of tribe which do not obey the ruler were put to death and every men who rebel against ruler were put in prison, thus the Buddhist were not in a position to rebel against Dahir they used Arabs to destroy Dahir’s regime and made them free.