Historical background of Education system in Pakistan
Pakistan came into being by the independence from over a century of British colonial rule in August 1947. The colonial period witnessed backward of education throughout the sub-continent but, some progress happened in education. However, the progress was largely limited to the areas that belongs to India. The regions comprising Pakistan were relatively backward in all respects because of the historical perspective and the British hate towards the Muslims this backwardness include education. At the time of independence, 85 percent of the population was illiterate. The literacy rate was lower even zero when we came to the rural areas with the rate for rural women. The task of nation building could not possible without having an educated and skilled manpower. Due to this a conference was appointed after the independence which conveyed the massage to the nation, it was recommended in the conference that universalization of primary education should be achieved within a period of 20 years, because at that time universal primary education has remained an important objective of all governments. And meet this ends, considerable resources have been expended in creating new infrastructure and facilities and various projects and schemes have been launched. Yet, the desired progress has not been achieved, either quantitatively or qualitatively. Half a century down the road, Pakistan remains a largely illiterate country.
One of the first attempts for government of Pakistan in the field of education and literacy was the National Education Conference, which was held in 1947.
The Quaid-e-Azam, in his message to the Conferences said:
“… the importance of education and the type of education cannot be over-emphasized … there is no doubt that the future of our State will and must greatly depend upon the type of education we give to our children, and the way in which we bring them up as future citizens of Pakistan … we should not forget that we have to compete with the world which is moving very fast in this direction.”
The national Education conference was described as the biggest achievement in the history of education in Pakistan. The conference formed a number of committees.
The Primary and Secondary Education Committee
The Primary and Secondary Education Committee “considered it essential that a national system of education should be based on the strong foundations of free and compulsory primary education.” It proposed separate pre-primary and primary education stages for children. It also took account of and dwelt on the problems of medium of instruction, teacher training, physical education, etc.
Adult Education Committee
In the Committee on Adult Education, it was pointed out that illiteracy was high at 85 percent, 140 years would be required to liquidate the problem. Highlighting the urgency of introducing literacy among the masses, including women, it identified the objective of literacy as a means to further education. It suggested the setting up of a permanent system of adult education, closely linked with compulsory primary education, to solve the problem in a period of 25 years.